Young Italy (1831)
Young Italy is a brotherhood of Italians who believe in a law of Progress and Duty, and are convinced that Italy is destined to become one nation,-convinced also that she possesses sufficient strength within herself to become one, and that the ill success of her former efforts is to be attributed not to the weakness, but to the misdirection of the revolutionary elements within her,-that the secret of force lies in constancy and unity of effort. They join this association in the firm intent of consecrating both thought and action to the great aim of reconstituting Italy as one independent sovereign nation of free men and equals….
Young Italy is Republican . . . Republican,-Because theoretically every nation is destined, by the law of God and humanity, to form a free and equal community of brothers; and the republican is the only form of government that insures this future….
The means by which Young Italy proposes to reach its aim are-education and insurrection, to be adopted simultaneously, and made to harmonize with each other. Education must ever be directed to teach by example, word, and pen the necessity of insurrection. Insurrection, whenever it can be realized, must be so conducted as to render it a means of national education….
Insurrection-by means of guerrilla bands- is the true method of warfare for all nations desirous of emancipating themselves from a foreign yoke. This method of warfare supplies the want-inevitable at the commencement of the insurrection-of a regular army; it calls the greatest number of elements into the field, and yet may be sustained by the smallest number. It forms the military education of the people, and consecrates every foot of the native soil by the memory of some warlike deed….
Each member will, upon his initiation into the association of Young Italy, pronounce the following form of oath, in the presence of the initiator:
In the name of God and of Italy;
In the name of all the martyrs of the holy Italian cause who have fallen beneath foreign and domestic tyranny;
By the duties which bind me to the land wherein God has placed me, and to the brothers whom God has given me;
By the love-innate in all men-I bear to the country that gave my mother
birth, and will be the home of my children;
By the hatred-innate in all men-I bear to evil, injustice, usurpation and arbitrary rule;
By the blush that rises to my brow when I stand before the citizens of other lands, to know that I have no rights of citizenship, no country, and no national flag;
By the aspiration that thrills my soul towards that liberty for which it was created, and is impotent to exert; towards the good it was created to strive after, and is impotent to achieve in the silence and isolation of slavery;
By the memory of our former greatness, and the sense of our present degradation;
By the tears of Italian mothers for their sons dead on the scaffold, in prison, or in exile;
By the sufferings of the millions, -
I, . . . believing in the mission entrusted by God to Italy, and the duty of every Italian to strive to attempt its fulfillment; convinced that where God has ordained that a nation shall be, He has given the requisite power to create it; that the people are the depositaries of that power, and that in its right direction for the people, and by the people, lies the secret of victory; convinced that virtue consists in action and sacrifice, and strength in union and constancy of purpose: I give my name to Young Italy, an association of men holding the same faith, and swear:
To dedicate myself wholly and forever to the endeavor with them to constitute Italy one free, independent, republican nation; to promote by every means in my power-whether by written or spoken word, or by action-the education of my Italian brothers towards the aim of Young Italy; towards association, the sole means of its accomplishment, and to virtue, which alone can render the conquest lasting; to abstain from enrolling myself in any other association from this time forth; to obey all the instructions, in conformity with the spirit of Young Italy, given me by those who represent with me the union of my Italian brothers; and to keep the secret of these instructions, even at the cost of my life; to assist my brothers of the association both by action and counsel -NOW AND FOREVER.
This do I swear, invoking upon my head the wrath of God, the abhorrence of man, and the infamy of the perjurer, if I ever betray the whole or a part of this my oath.
Source: from Joseph Mazzini: His life, Writings, and Political Principles (New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1872), pp. 62, 69, 71-74.